MathML AssociationA group action for MathML
http://mathml-association.org/
Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:11 +0100Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:11 +0100Jekyll v3.1.6MathML on Wikipedia<h2 id="overview">Overview</h2>
<p>Our director Moritz Schubotz has been working for several months on a new MathML
mode with SVG fallback for the MediaWiki Math engine. After intensive
development and testing to ensure that existing features and performance are
preserved, this mode finally became the default in all MediaWiki and Wikipedia
web sites. This opens new perspectives for better rendering, accessibility,
search, equation sharing, font & unicode support, styling, line breaking… and
more!</p>
<h2 id="standard-improvements">Standard Improvements</h2>
<p>Until recently, mathematical formulas were output as PNG images contrary to the
rest of the text of the page. This was the source of many inconsistencies and
problems, the most famous being the bad rendering on high resolution display,
at a large zoom level or when printed on paper.
To solve that, SVG images are now served by default to all but old browsers.
Hence this gives a clear picture at all scales. Using SVG also improves the
integration of formulas with the surrounding text e.g. baseline alignment or
text size.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;"><img src="/img/wikipedia-png-vs-svg.png" alt="Wikipedia formulas rendered with PNG or SVG images" /><div style="font-style: italic">Formula from Wikipedia's article on the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_function">Gamma function</a> with PNG (above) or SVG (below)</div></div>
<h2 id="more-enhancements">More Enhancements</h2>
<p>Although using scalable images brings a significant rendering improvements, the
mathematical formulas are still not treated as normal text but drawn with vector
graphic primitives. For instance, if you try looking for the character “λ”
using the standard search interface of your browser then you will never get a
match for variables in mathematical formulas.</p>
<p>At the moment OpenType math fonts are not widespread and MathML support in
browsers is inconsistent. However, if you are ready for the next level of
enhancements you can easily decide to replace the SVG display with the MathML
display using this
<a href="https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/native-mathml/">Gecko addon</a> or by
inserting <a href="https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Math/advancedSettings#CSS_for_the_MathML_with_SVG_fallback_mode">a few CSS lines</a>
in your custom style sheet. Depending on the font shipped with your systems,
you may also need to <a href="https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Mozilla/MathML_Project/Fonts">install math fonts</a>.</p>
<p>After these configurations, the math rendering will be performed using standard
font selection & text shaping methods which provides better rendering, unicode
coverage, CSS customization (font-family, font-size etc.), text search,
selection etc.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;"><img src="/img/wikipedia-math-fonts.png" alt="Wikipedia formulas rendered with MathML and various math fonts" /><div style="font-style: italic">Formula from Wikipedia's article on the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_function">Gamma function</a> rendered with various math fonts.</div></div>
<p>With the MathML available in the DOM, you also have access to new enhancements. For example, you can use this
<a href="https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/mathml-copy/">MathML copy</a>
to transfer MathML or TeX between Wiki pages and external programs like
Computer Algebra Systems, or a
<a href="https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/math-anywhere/gebhifiddmaaeecbaiemfpejghjdjmhc">MathJax plugin</a>
to render formulas on browsers that do not natively support MathML yet.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;"><img src="/img/wikipedia-cas.png" alt="Copying MathML expressions from the German version of Wikibooks to Wolfram Mathematica" /><div style="font-style: italic">
On the left, there is a screen-shot, displaying a section of the book
on quantum mechanics taken on May’16 2016 as non registered
visitor using Firefox version 45, with the Native MathML plugin enabled. The
photon momentum was selected, to demonstrate the bounding boxes of the symbols,
and to copy and paste it to the computer Algebra System Mathematica (screen-shot
on the right) as In[8]. The same step was performed for the relativistic momentum
In[9]. Thereafter, an additional = sign has been manually inserted to In[8]. Thereafter
Solve[%8,λ] was typed to compute the De-Broglie wavelength.</div></div>
<p>One improvement that is worth mentioning is that assistive technologies can use
the MathML content to provide better accessibility support for mathematical
formulas. We have successfully tested this on a wide range of tools such as
NVDA/MathPlayer, VoiceOver, Orca or ChromeVox.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;">
<iframe src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/132929583?byline=0&portrait=0" width="640" height="360" frameborder="0" webkitallowfullscreen="" mozallowfullscreen="" allowfullscreen=""></iframe>
<p><a href="https://vimeo.com/132929583">VoiceOver+Firefox MathML</a> from <a href="https://vimeo.com/user41690319">Frédéric Wang</a>,
licensed under
<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/">
<img alt="Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-sa/2.0/80x15.png" style="border: 0;" /></a>.</p>
</div>
<h2 id="conclusion">Conclusion</h2>
<p>We expect that this new mode will encourage developers of web engines and
assistive technologies to improve their MathML support. We also hope that type
designers and operating system maintainers will continue to make OpenType font
more widespread in order so that math text can be handled as any other human
languages. We are excited about the current achievement and we are looking
forward to continuing collaboration with all the developers and users in order
to provide the best experience for math on the web!</p>
Tue, 31 May 2016 00:00:00 +0200
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/05/31/wikipedia.html
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/05/31/wikipedia.htmlannouncementannouncementWelcome to Borrero Law<p>We are very glad to announce that the <a href="http://borrerolegal.com/">Borrero Law Firm of New York</a> have agreed to come on board as our legal advisors. Their expertise in business, technology, and law will be instrumental to continue the development of the MathML Association and reach a legally solid non-profit structure where all <a href="/affiliates/index.html">Affiliates</a> can get involved for the benefit of MathML… Welcome to Borrero Law!</p>
Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/02/15/borrero-law.html
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/02/15/borrero-law.htmlannouncementannouncementAnnual Activity Report 2015<p>We recently celebrated the first year of existence of the MathML Association!
In 2015, we set up the organization structure, started
outreach campaigns, liaised with other MathML-related organizations, and
launched first technical projects to enhance
MathML support in browsers. We just published our
<a href="/reports/2015.html">annual activity report</a> where you can find
further details.</p>
Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/02/15/annual-activity-report.html
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2016/02/15/annual-activity-report.htmlannouncementannouncementBoard Meeting November 2015<p>Two weeks ago, we held our first board meeting, results:</p>
<ul>
<li>re-elected current slate of directors for 2016.</li>
<li>progress on financial matters.</li>
</ul>
<p>Details can be found in the <a href="/meetings/board-2015-11-30.html">minutes</a>.</p>
Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/11/30/minutes.html
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/11/30/minutes.htmlminutesminutesSupporting mathematical fonts<p>As stated in <a href="/legal-documents/manifesto.html">our manifesto</a>,
mathematical fonts are extremely important to provide good mathematical
rendering.
In a <a href="/announcement/2015/10/10/mathml-in-html5.html">previous announcement</a>, we
mentioned the publication of a <a href="/MathMLinHTML5/">“MathML in HTML5” implementation note</a>, relying on <a href="http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=66391">Open Font Format 3</a> and more specifically the <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/typography/otspec/math.htm">OpenType MATH table</a> introduced by Microsoft. Initially used
for <a href="https://products.office.com/word">Microsoft Word</a>, this table was later implemented in modern TeX typesetting engines such as <a href="http://xetex.sourceforge.net/">XeTeX</a>, <a href="http://luatex.org/">LuaTeX</a> or <a href="http://www.pragma-ade.nl/">ConTeXt</a>. During a <a href="http://www.ulule.com/mathematics-ebooks/">crowdfunding project from 2014</a>, one of our <a href="/people/directors.html">directors</a> submitted patches to Mozilla, Apple and Google in order to implement parsing for the OpenType MATH table in <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gecko_%28software%29">Gecko</a>, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebKit">WebKit</a> and <a href="https://github.com/khaledhosny/ots">OTS</a> respectively. This opened the way to better mathematical rendering in browsers. Gecko and WebKit already use this table for their MathML support.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;"><img src="/img/nomath-vs-math.png" alt="Mathematical formulas rendered with or without a MATH table" /><div style="font-style: italic">MathML formula rendered by Firefox.<br />Left: <a href="https://github.com/googlei18n/noto-fonts/issues/330">Noto Serif</a> (no MATH table) ; Right: Latin Modern Math (MATH table)</div></div>
<p>The use of math fonts with an OpenType MATH table has been
the opportunity for the MathML community to build relationships with font
designers. We would like to thank Microsoft for creating the Cambria Math
and making it available on Windows systems. In particular,
<a href="http://blogs.msdn.com/b/murrays/">Murray Sargent</a> was very helpful in private
discussions on the MATH table and he was involved in its submission for
standardization in Open Font Format 3. <a href="http://www.khaledhosny.org/">Khaled Hosny</a> by his long experience in mathematical typesetting, familiarity with Arabic notations and deep knowledge of font formats has also provided prominent support to MathML implementers. Several of his fonts are freely available on <a href="https://github.com/khaledhosny/">his GitHub repository</a>. The work of the <a href="http://www.gust.org.pl/projects/e-foundry/">GUST e-foundry group</a> was also instrumental in providing a <a href="http://www.gust.org.pl/projects/e-foundry/lm-math">modernization of the classical Computer Modern font</a> as well as many other <a href="http://www.gust.org.pl/projects/e-foundry/tg-math">math fonts</a>, some of them still in development. Thanks also to the <a href="http://stixfonts.org/">STI Pub Consortium</a> for designing and distributing the STIX Math font and its impressive Unicode coverage for mathematical and technical symbols. We are involved in the discussion for the development of STIX 2 and we are confident that this next release will be usable for MathML rendering soon. Finally, other designers have <a href="https://github.com/fred-wang/MathFonts/">created fonts with a MATH table</a> and we are very grateful for their effort.</p>
<div style="text-align: center; padding: 1em;"><img src="/img/win-vs-typo.png" alt="A mathematical formula rendered using Windows and Typo metrics" /><div style="font-style: italic">MathML formula rendered by Firefox using the Latin Modern Math font.<br />Left: "Windows" metrics ; Right: Typo metrics</div></div>
<p>An important issues raised during the discussion with the
font designers is the interpretation of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typeface#Font_metrics">vertical font metrics</a>. The Open Font Format contains three different metrics but only the “typo” metrics are really relevant for mathematical rendering. Especially, some metrics used on Windows must take into account the tallest glyphs of the font which can be excessively large in the case of a mathematical font (e.g. when it contains big integrals). To solve that issue, Microsoft introduced a <a href="http://www.microsoft.com/typography/otspec/os2.htm#fss">USE_TYPO_METRICS</a> bit that tells implementers to really use the “typo” metrics.
The MathML Association has thus been involved in implementing this feature in
Web rendering engines with the help of Mozilla and Apple developers.
More specifically, patches for <a href="https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=598900">Gecko</a> landed in May while patches for <a href="https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=131839">WebKit</a> landed during the past two weeks. The USE_TYPO_METRICS bit is thus taken into account on all platforms in the current Firefox release. The same is true for WebKit Nightly with the exception of iOS and OS X where for now it only applies to fonts with a MATH table.</p>
<p>The OpenType MATH table and USE_TYPO_METRICS feature were two of the requirements of the <a href="/MathMLinHTML5/">“MathML in HTML5” implementation note</a>.
We will continue to support the projects of font designers and
encourage OS vendors to make mathematical fonts widely available.
Collaborating with browser vendors to
improve the use of the MATH table for MathML rendering is also one of our
top priority. We already had encouraging discussions with some WebKit developers
and we will announce more in future updates. Stay tuned!</p>
Sat, 07 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/2015/11/07/math-fonts.html
http://mathml-association.org/2015/11/07/math-fonts.htmlfontsBecome a MathML Friend<p>On November 5. 2015, the MathML Association opened the <a href="http://mathml-association.org/affiliates/friends.html">MathML Friends
list</a> page and <a href="http://lists.mathml-association.org/mailman/listinfo/friends">mailing
list</a>. You can express your
support for the <a href="http://mathml-association.org/legal-documents/manifesto.html">MathML
Manifesto</a> by <a href="http://mathml-association.org/affiliates/friends.html">signing
up</a>.</p>
<p>Go ahead, sign up, and tell your friends!</p>
Thu, 05 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2015/11/05/friends.html
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2015/11/05/friends.htmlannouncementsannouncementBoard Meeting, October 2015<p>Last week we held our fourth board meeting, results:</p>
<ul>
<li>vote on friends process</li>
<li>elected Moritz Schubotz as “friends officer”.</li>
<li>adopted two slogans: “A group action for MathML” for the website and “Web Math Matters” for twitter.</li>
</ul>
<p>For more details on other votes and dicussions, you are invited to read the
<a href="/meetings/board-2015-10-28.html">minutes</a>.</p>
Wed, 28 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/10/28/minutes.html
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/10/28/minutes.htmlminutesminutes"MathML in HTML5" implementation note and test suite<p>Today, we published a first draft of the <a href="http://www.mathml-association.org/MathMLinHTML5/">“MathML in HTML5” implementation note</a>. This note takes into
account feedback from browser vendors or web users about the fact that the rules
described in the <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML3/">MathML specification</a> are not
precise enough for consistent, high quality and easily implementable
mathematical rendering. Hence this note provides detailed rules based on
<a href="/MathMLinHTML5/bib.html#bibx16">TeXBook’s Appendix G</a> and from the
<a href="http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_ics/catalogue_detail_ics.htm?csnumber=66391">Open Font Format version 3</a>.</p>
<p>As suggested by the name, the priority is to be compatible with existing
technologies of web rendering engines by relying as much as possible on CSS,
text & table layout and box models. We also used the experience gained
by several years of development in the <a href="https://wiki.mozilla.org/MathML:Home_Page">Mozilla’s MathML Project</a> and took into account problems found in the
more recent <a href="https://trac.webkit.org/wiki/MathML">WebKit’s implementation</a>.
We hope that the present document will be
understandable by any implementer with sufficient knowledge of web rendering
engines and text layout. Parts of presentation MathML that do not fit well into
this framework or are rarely used in practice have been ommited. Future versions
may extend the subset of MathML considered but we expect that the present
document will already be enough to render with high quality the majority of
mathematical formulas used in practice.</p>
<p>As indicated in our <a href="/legal-documents/manifesto.html">Manifesto</a>, we believe
that open standards are important and we strongly relied on the MathML
and Open Font Format specifications to propose these math rendering rules.
We want all the actors to get involved and we already received very positive
feedback from the Math WG and from WebKit developers. We are interested
in hearing more opinion and we will refine and improve this document based
on feedback from implementers, users and specification editors. In the future,
we may consider proposing it as an official W3C note from the Math WG.</p>
<p>Last but not least, we also started to write a
<a href="http://tests.mathml-association.org/">test suite for “MathML in HTML5” implementation note</a>. We relied on <a href="http://testthewebforward.org/">existing approaches</a>
used to ensure conformance with W3C specifications and to provide tests for
continuous integration by browser vendors. By following practices developers
are used to, we hope that this test suite will be instrumental to implement
and improve native MathML in all browsers.</p>
Sat, 10 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0200
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2015/10/10/mathml-in-html5.html
http://mathml-association.org/announcement/2015/10/10/mathml-in-html5.htmlannouncementsannouncementMathML Association featured on the W3C site<p>Today, the <a href="https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-math/2015Sep/0026.html">Math WG mentions the MathML Association on its Web page</a>. Thank you very much for making more people aware of the association and of its <a href="/legal-documents/manifesto.html">mission</a>!</p>
Fri, 18 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0200
http://mathml-association.org/2015/09/18/w3c.html
http://mathml-association.org/2015/09/18/w3c.htmlw3cBoard Meeting, September 2015<p>Last week we held our third board meeting, where among other things we elected
our <a href="/people/officers.html">board officers</a>:</p>
<ul>
<li>Michael Kohlhase (President)</li>
<li>Frédéric Wang (Vice-president)</li>
<li>Deyan Ginev (Secretary)</li>
<li>Raniere Silva (Treasurer)</li>
</ul>
<p>For more details on other votes and dicussions, you are invited to read the
<a href="/meetings/board-2015-09-18.html">minutes</a>.</p>
Fri, 18 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0200
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/09/18/minutes.html
http://mathml-association.org/minutes/2015/09/18/minutes.htmlminutesminutes